Fertility Treatments: IVF and ICSI

Artificial insemination includes the incubation of cells in appropriate conditions using specific incubators.

In vitro fertilisation (IVF) is a process of fertilisation where an egg is combined with sperm outside the body, in vitro (“in glass”). This is done in special laboratory conditions. To increase the chance of successful in vitro fertilization, a woman’s ovaries are stimulated in order to collect more mature oocytes than in natural cycle. The oocytes are collected during a short procedure (~ 15 minutes), which is called oocyte pick-up. Male partner gives semen sample in the clinic on the same day of the procedure.


In case of the classic IVF (in vitro fertilization) method, the retrieved eggs are put together with sperm in a petri dish and will be cultivated under laboratory conditions similar to the conditions in the female reproductive organs. After 16 to 18 hours we check the fertilization of oocytes and correctly fertilized oocytes are further cultivated, so that embryos can develop. Embryo development is monitored in the laboratory conditions for 2 to 6 days.


ICSI (intracytoplasmic sperm injection) is a method of in vitro fertilization in which a single healthy sperm is selected under a microscope and inserted directly into the cytoplasm of an oocyte using a micropipette. The ICSI method is usually used in cases of male infertility or if the previous IVF method has not given the desired result. The ICSI method is also used, if a woman’s oocytes have been frozen before (see cryopreservation). Further development and monitoring of embryos is performed similarly to the IVF method.

Learn more about our services and cost of treatment.

Stages of in vitro fertilization:

  • Consultation, baseline studies, bloodwork, analysis, ovarian stimulation.
  • Egg retrieval and sperm sample given
  • Fertilization (IVF / ICSI)
  • Embryo culture (2-6 days)
  • Embryo (s) transfer
  • Pregnancy test

Embryo Transfer


Gynaecologists appointment

Fertility testing

The day of embryo transfer depends on the development of embryos. The embryologist selects best quality embryo (s) for transplantation. In Estonia, it is allowed to transplant up to 3 embryos, but it is usually recommended to transplant 1 embryo in order to avoid the possible risks associated with multiple pregnancies. If there is a surplus of embryos, intended parents have an option to freeze good quality embryos for future IVF treatments.

In our clinic it’s possible to give a helping hand to your embryo with EmbryoGlue: a medium specifically designed for embryo transfer can support implantation even more. EmbryoGlue is a medium that closely resembles the environment in the womb at the time of implantation.

Detection of pregnancy

To conceive, the embryo must attach to the inner surface of the woman’s uterus (or endometrium). Two weeks after embryo transfer, the blood test (hCG) shows whether the embryo has implanted. Clinical pregnancy can be detected  6 weeks after transplantation.

The success of in vitro fertilization is individual and depends on the causes of infertility. On average, about 30% of procedures succeed.

To get more information, book an online consultation with our gynaecologists.

ICSI means the injection of a single sperm into an oocyte in a clean laboratory environment under a specific microscope.

Fertility Clinic Nordic – Helping to Achieve Little Miracles